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Noon Saakin and Tanween in Tajweed Definitions, Rules, and Examples in the Quran

Noon Saakin and Tanween in Tajweed: Definitions, Rules, and Examples in the Quran

In this article, our goal is to provide a thorough explanation of Noon Saakin and Tanween, emphasizing their differences and exploring the four fundamental rules that dictate their pronunciation. 

Whether you are new to Tajweed or well-versed in its principles, mastering the rules of Noon Saakin and Tanween will greatly improve your recitation abilities.

What is Noon Saakin?

The term “Noon” refers to the letter (ن), while “Saakin” indicates a silent vowel sound, represented by sukoon or saakinah. Understanding Noon Saakin is important in the Arabic language and Tajweed.

When a word contains Noon Saakin, it means that the letter (ن) appears in the middle or at the end of the word without any accompanying vowel sound.

In Tajweed, the rules regarding Noon Saakin are crucial for accurately reciting the Quran. These rules dictate the pronunciation of certain letters and sounds that follow Noon Saakin in words.

By familiarizing ourselves with these rules, we can ensure that each word is pronounced correctly when reading or reciting from the Quran and it is why Tajweed is important.

What is Tanween?

Tanween refers to the diacritical marks in Arabic that are placed above certain letters to indicate the sound of an “n” followed by a short vowel.

These diacritical marks take the form of three small dots above the letter and resemble a miniature version of the Arabic letter “noon.”

Tanween is written on the final letter of a word and is pronounced as a Noon Sakinah with Sukoon after the word’s last letter. Although it is pronounced as a Noon Sakinah, it is not written as a Noon.

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Types of Tanween

There are three types of Tanween: Tanween Fath, Tanween Kasr, and Tanween Damm. Each is named after a different haraka. These diacritical marks modify the pronunciation of the last letter of a word and are not followed by any extra letters:

A) Tanween Fath

Tanween Fath is named after the haraka “Fatha” and is symbolized by two Fathas placed on top of each other over the last letter of the word. It is usually followed by the letter alif (ا). For example, the word “أَلِيْمًا” is pronounced as “aleeman”.

B) Tanween Kasr

Tanween Kasr, named after the haraka “Kasra”, is represented by two kasras written below the last letter of the word. It is not followed by any extra letter. For example, the word “أَلِيمٍ” is pronounced as “aleemin”.

C) Tanween Damm

Tanween Damm is named after the haraka “Dammah” and represents a Dammah on the last letter of the word before the Tanween.

It is symbolized by two Dammas written over the final letter of the word and is not followed by any extra letter. For example, the word “أَلِيمٌ” is pronounced as “aleemun”.

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The Difference Between Noon Sakin and Tanween In The Quran

Noon Sakin and Tanween are two important concepts in the study of Tajweed, which focuses on correctly pronouncing and reciting the Quran. Although they may sound similar, there are distinct differences between them. Here is a brief explanation:

1. Definition

Noon Sakin refers to the letter noon (ن) with a sukoon (a diacritical mark indicating an absence of a vowel sound), either at the end of a word or within it.

On the other hand, Tanween is represented by double fatha (ًً), double kasra (ٍٍ), or double damma (ُُ) placed above the letter before which it appears.

2. Occurrence

Noon Sakinah can occur in nouns, verbs, and huroof (letters), while Tanween occurs only in nouns.

3. Place in the word

Noon Sakinah can occur in the middle or at the end of a word, whereas Tanween only occurs at the end of a word.

4. Written form

Noon Sakinah is written as a noon letter with sukoon (a small circle on top) or without any vowel marks, while Tanween is written with two fathas (a short diagonal line) or two kasras (a short diagonal line below) or two dammas (a small curly line) on the last letter of the word.

5. Pronunciation

Both Noon Sakinah and Tanween are pronounced as a nasalized “n” sound, similar to regular noon with sukoon.

6. Tajweed rules

Noon Sakinah and Tanween are read according to the same Tajweed rules, including Izhar (clear pronunciation), Idghaam (merging), Iqlaab (substitution), and Ikhfaa (hiding).

These rules dictate how the sounds of Noon Sakinah and Tanween are merged or pronounced differently depending on the letters that follow them in the word.

Learn the proper pronunciation of Quranic Arabic with Tajweed rules. Master your recitation and deepen your understanding of the sacred text.

Read: How to Learn Tajweed?

The 4 Rules of Noon Saakin and Tanween

Understanding the rules of Noon Saakin and Tanween is crucial for proper recitation of the Quran. These rules include Izhar, Iqlab, Idghaam, and Ikhfaa, which govern the pronunciation of these letters in Tajweed. 

By understanding these four rules and applying them correctly during recitation practice sessions with qualified teachers at Bayan Al-Quran Online Academy, you will significantly enhance your Tajweed skills.

First: Izhar of Noon Saakin and Tanween

Understanding and applying the Izhar rule is crucial for achieving accurate pronunciation in the Quran, especially when dealing with noon saakin and tanween followed by the Huroof Halaqiyya:

A) Application of the Rule

This rule specifically applies when a noon saakin or tanween, which are diacritic marks indicating nasalization and an indefinite noun respectively, are followed by one of the Huroof Halaqiyya. 

These Huroof Halaqiyya consist of six letters that are pronounced from the throat: Hamza (ء), Haa (ه), Ayn (ع), Haa (ح), Ghayn (غ), and Khaa (خ).

B) Principle of Izhar

The principle of Izhar involves enunciating the “N” sound of the noon saakin or tanween distinctly without any prolongation.

This means that when encountering a noon saakin or tanween followed by one of the Huroof Halaqiyya, the “N” sound should be pronounced clearly and without any merging or blending with the following letter.

C) Example Illustrating Izhar

A clear example of the Izhar rule can be observed in the phrase “مِنْ حَكِيمٍ” (min hakeemin). In this phrase, the noon sakina at the end of the word “حَكِيمٍ” is immediately followed by the letter Haa in the subsequent word.

According to the rule of Izhar, the “N” sound in the noon sakina should be pronounced distinctly without any prolongation or blending with the following letter.

Second: Iqlaab of Noon Saakin and Tanween

Iqlaab, which means conversion, involves transforming Noon Sakinah or Tanween into the letter Meem when they are followed by the letter Baa. This conversion occurs without any Harakah, or vowel sound.

A) Ghunnah and Iqlaab

In the context of Iqlaab, Ghunnah plays a crucial role. It refers to the production of a nasal sound that lasts for two beats.

Ghunnah accompanies the change from Noon Sakinah or Tanween to the Meem sound, adding a unique quality to the pronunciation.

B) Letter Involved in Iqlaab

The only letter that triggers Iqlaab is Baa. When Baa follows Noon Sakinah or Tanween, Iqlaab takes place. This results in the conversion of the original letter into Meem.

C) Identifying Iqlaab

To determine if Iqlaab occurs, one needs to observe if the letter Baa follows Noon Sakinah or Tanween. If Baa is present after either of these, it signifies the application of Iqlaab.

D) Effect of Iqlaab

The effect of Iqlaab is a change in the sound from Noon Sakinah or Tanween to the Meem sound, accompanied by a prolonged humming sound represented by a small meem above the letter in the written script.

F) Example of Iqlab

A specific example of Iqlaab can be seen in the phrase “لَنَسْفَعًا بِالنَّاصِيَةِ” (Tanween at the end of the verb “لَنَسْفَعًا”).

In this case, Iqlaab occurs because the letter Baa follows Tanween. As a result, the Tanween is converted into Meem, resulting in the pronunciation of “lanasfa’em” with a nasal sound.

Third: Idghaam of Noon Saakin and Tanween

Idghaam in Tajweed refers to the integration or intertwining of sounds within Arabic pronunciation. It occurs specifically when a noon  Saakin or tanween is followed by one of six specific letters: ر – ل – م – ن – و – ي.

A) Types of Idghaam

Idghaam can be categorized into two types based on the presence or absence of Ghunna.

1. Idghaam with Ghunna: This type of Idghaam applies when the noon saakinah/tanween is followed by ي – ن – م – و. Ghunna, a nasal sound produced from the nose, accompanies the pronunciation of Idghaam. The duration of Ghunna is approximately two beats, similar to slowly folding and unfolding a finger.

2. Idghaam without Ghunna: The second type of Idghaam applies to the remaining two letters: ر – ل. After the noon saakinah or tanween, if any of the letters ي – ر – م – ل – و – ن appear, Idghaam is performed, but without the inclusion of Ghunna.

B) Merging and Emphasizing Sounds

Idghaam involves merging the “N” sound of the noon saakinah or tanween with the following letter, resulting in a single emphasized letter known as mushaddadah.

C) Idghaam Naaqis

Four of the letters (ي – و – م – ن) require Idghaam with Ghunna. This form of Idghaam is commonly referred to as Idghaam Naaqis.

D) Examples of Idghaam

An example of Idghaam with Ghunna can be seen in the phrase “هُدىً مِنْ.” Here, the tanween at the end of the word “هُدىً” is followed by the letter م in the next word, resulting in the application of Idghaam.

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Fourth: Ikhfaa of Noon Saakin and Tanween

The concept of Ikhfaa refers to the intermediate pronunciation of a noon saakin or tanween, falling between the clarity of idhar and the merging of idgham. This rule is essential to remember when reciting the Quran with proper Tajweed.

A) The Application of Ikhfaa with Specific Letters

When a noon saakin or tanween is followed by any of the 15 specific letters – ج – ذ – د – ث – ت – ض – ص – ش – س – ز – ك – ق – ف – ظ – ط – after excluding the letters associated with idhar, idgham, and iqlab, the rule of Ikhfaa applies.

B) The pronunciation of Noon Saakin and Tanween in Ikhfaa.

In practice, when pronouncing a noon saakin or tanween under the Ikhfaa rule, it does not reach the clarity of idhar nor the merging of idgham. 

Instead, it carries a distinct nasal resonance known as ghunna, which is equivalent to the duration of two vowel sounds (harakatayn).

The subsequent letter from the list of 15 is then articulated with clarity. It is important to note that this rule applies within single words and across word boundaries.

C) Implementation of Ikhfaa

To summarize, whenever any of the 15 specified letters appear after a noon saakin or tanween, Ikhfaa should be implemented.

Ikhfaa entails slightly “hiding” the “N” sound of the noon saakin or tanween, bringing the shadow of the letter, and slightly lengthening it.

D) Example of Ikhfaa

In the phrase “بسلامٍ ذلك” (with a tanween at the end of the noun “بسلامٍ”), the tanween is followed by the letter “Dhaal” in the next word.

Here, Ikhfaa is applied, and the pronunciation will reflect the distinct nasal resonance (ghunna) of the noon saakin or tanween, followed by the clear articulation of the letter “Dhaal.”

Read: How long does it take to learn tajweed?

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Conclusion

Mastering the rules of Noon Saakin and Tanween is crucial for correctly reciting the Quran and preserving its beauty.

The four main rules – Izhar, Iqlab, Idghaam, and Ikhfaa – provide guidance on how to pronounce Noon Saakin and Tanween correctly in various contexts.

Regularly practicing Tajweed with a qualified teacher or through online platforms like At Bayan Al-Quran can improve skills and strengthen one’s connection with the message of the Quran.

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